Parasomnia a primary sleep disorder in which the persons physiology or behaviors are affected by sleep, the sleep stage, or the transition from sleeping to waking. Thats where we consolidate shortterm memories into longterm memories. From the dreams of the rem rapid eye movement sleep stage to the deep restorative and most restful sleep of stage 3 and 4 nrem nonrapid eye movement sleep, the body changes the frequency and amplitude of its brain waves in each sleep stage. Recommended supplies threering binder threering binder dividers at least 14 dividersone for. Sanja jelic, md, is boardcertified in sleep medicine, critical care medicine, pulmonary disease, and internal medicine. During sleep, the body alternates through cycles of rem and nrem. William sears, noted authority on infants and childrearing, infant brain development is, in part, influenced by longer and more frequent periods of active sleeping and dreaming or a. Sleep has been the subject of speculation and thought since the time of the early greek philosophers. Oct 08, 2018 sleep does not progress through all of these stages in sequence, however. Sleep apnea, for example, is a disorder in which obstruction of the airway.
During these times, that arise most often in the initial hours of sleep, the electroencephalogram displays only little activity, and there is minimal or no alterations in respiration, blood pressure, or pulse. Many early writings discuss sleep and sleep disorders in a variety of ways. Mar 02, 2018 whenever you lie down for those forty winks, cat nap, or a good nights rest, theres plenty happening in your body as it dials down. Based on research showing a relation between use of incentives and student reading, he recommended providing a free starbucks gift card for every. Sleep begins in stage 1 and progresses into stages 2, and 3. Once rem sleep is over, the body usually returns to stage 2 sleep. Night terrors a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Ap psychology syllabus 2 syllabus 1058809v1 2 course title ap psychology course goal to learn about the field of psychology through indepth study, discussion, and handson activities textbook hockenbury, don h. In order to best simulate the ap psychology exam, the multiple choice section of the test will be worth 23 of the total grade, or. On the other hand, in nonrapid eye movement sleep, the eyes stay at rest. Dec 30, 2004 challenging existing claims concerning the functions of rapid eye movement sleep and the purported meaninglessness of dreams, this text offers a complete and uptodate survey on the anatomy, physiology, ontogeny, and phylogeny of rem sleep as well as the cognitive neuroscience of dream phenomonolgy and dream content. Chapters explore interactions of rem and nrem and effects of these interactions on anabolic hormone release as well as the effects on dream content, the effects of genes and genomic imprinting on sleep, and theories of dream formation and content. The researcher notes that the participant has entered a. List of books and articles about sleep online research.
After reading this book i learned a lot about why we sleep and what occurs during sleep. For example, i learned about the different stages of sleep and that during sleep these stages create a cycle that is repetitive and that people feel least tired when waking up after. As the body begins to fall asleep and enters stage 1, alpha waves become present. Then, after stage four sleep, stages three, then two are. Psychology insight and the sleep committee request pdf. Dream content during sleepwalkingsleep terrors vs rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Describe the sleep cycle and identify what occurs in each stage. During this time, there is a slowdown in both the rates of respiration and heartbeat. It has been noted that serotonin is involved in the production of nrem sleep. Start studying ap psychology exam multiple choice practice. Typically when you have a chance to fall asleep after sleep deprivation you have a tendency to get more rem sleep than you would normally get. Nonrapid eye movement nrem sleep a type of sleep that differs from rapid eye movement rem sleep. A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. Sleepwake disorders encompass 10 disorders or disorder groups.
During nrem sleep, the longrange brain waves of deep sleep move memory packets of recent experiences from a shortterm, more fragile storage area to a safer longterm storage site. Why is stage four nrem sleep not mentioned in this video. Sleep and dreaming boundless psychology lumen learning. This theory of dreaming was first proposed by allan hobson and robert mccarley in 1977. Exploring the necessity and virtue of sleep the new york times. An evolutionary psychology of sleep and dreams by patrick. Rem sleep happens for two hours in a single nights sleep while nrem sleep takes place for four to six hours.
In most instances, nrem usually happens though the body will undertake both rem and nrem sleep cycles. Diagram the sleep cycle wavelengths and explain what is happening at each stage of sleep including rem and nrem sleep explain freuds theory of dreams. Whenever you lie down for those forty winks, cat nap, or a good nights rest, theres plenty happening in your body as it dials down. Stages of sleep psychologist world psychology news. I really like this book because i am extremely interested in psychology. Rem and nrem play a key role in memory consolidation and the act of retaining information.
Human sleep are usually divided into 5 stages according to electroencephalographic eeg recordings. This book is distributed under the terms of the creative commons. Psychology and psychophysiology, 2nd edition 9780471525561. Nonrapid eye movement sleep nrem, also known as quiescent sleep, is, collectively, sleep. Beta waves occur during normal wakefulness and are not associated with sleep. Rem sleep with rapid eye movements this includes dreaming, stage 1 with 50% reduction in alpha waves compared to awake resting with eyes closed. Nrem sleep is subdivided into several stages numbered 1 to 3. See more ideas about sleep, infographic and how to fall asleep. Sleep stages and circadian rhythms video khan academy. Sleep also aids in the strengthening of memories, and researchers have discovered that an increased circulation of fluids in the brain during sleep removes waste products from the brain. D it occurs during the first half of an individuals sleep cycle. The functions of sleep and the effects of sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep can cause moodiness, irritability, and even loss of memory. Rem lasts about 90 minutes as night progresses we spend more time in rem cycle.
Aug 16, 20 just as deep sleep renews the body, rem sleep renews the mind. The four stages of nrem sleep account for 7580% of total sleeping time. There are 3 degrees of illness with obstructive sleep apnea mild. Normal stage of sleep, characterized by random, rapid movement of the eyes. Ap psych chapter 5 consciousness dream rapid eye movement. The first stage of nrem sleep is known as stage 1 sleep. Current concepts in the neurophysiologic basis of sleep. When you are sleep deprived you lose out on two types of sleep, rem and nrem nonrem. Dream content during sleepwalking sleep terrors vs rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Sleep does not progress through all of these stages in sequence, however.
Technically speaking, sleep is a periodic, natural, reversible and near total loss of consciousness, meaning its different than hibernation, being in a coma, or in say, an anesthetic oblivion. Thus, narcolepsy is a disorder in which rem sleep appears at an abnormal time. Second, various authors have proposed that the functional reorganization and plasticity during rem and nonrem nrem sleep is reflected in dream content llewellyn, 20. The functional biology of the other major mammalian sleep state, nonrem nrem, will be explored only insofar as it sheds some light on rem. Walker, a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the university of california. Kendra cherry, ms, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Sleep is essential for proper psychological and physiological functioning.
Rem sleep with rapid eye movements this includes dreaming, stage 1 with 50% reduction in alpha waves compared to awake. Nrem nonrem sleep sleep stages 1 through 4 without rapid eye movements. Nonrem sleep contains light stages of sleep stage 1, to full sleep stage 2, and deep or slow wave sleep stages 3 and 4. Rem sleep is a critical part of your sleep pattern every night. Nrem sleep definition of nrem sleep by the free dictionary. Stages 1 to 4 are characterized by nonrapid eye movement i. Sleep deprivation is known to decrease insight into ones own performance,40. Two books look at why getting a good nights rest is essential. Sleep begins in stage one and progresses into stages 2, 3, and 4.
The science of sleepwalking science smithsonian magazine. After stage 3 sleep, stage 2 sleep is repeated before entering rem sleep. Twenty years ago, he was diagnosed with sleep apnea, a condition in which. In a sleep study, a researcher observes that the participants eyes are beginning to dart as if he were watching a sporting event. This sleep state, called rapid eye movement sleep, is when dreaming occurs. Sleep cycles through these stages approximately four or five times throughout the night. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. According to the theory of activation synthesis, circuits in the brain are activated during rem sleep.
Criteria for determining rem sleep include low muscle tone and rapid eye moveme. These brain circuits, in turn, help to activate areas of the limbic system. Stage 1 sleep is a transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep, the period during which we drift off to sleep. Sleep cycles through these stages approximately four or five. This is the most common of sleep illnesses and is commonly related to psychological stressors, poor. Nrem sleep contains all stages of sleep except rem there are 5, although many debate this, instead saying there are 4 stages of sleep. All of this internal activity is synthesized and interpreted by the brain. In narcolepsy, the order and length of nrem and rem sleep periods are disturbed, with rem sleep occurring at sleep onset instead of after a period of nrem sleep. Most of what we know about sleep stages comes from studying how a person sleeps. Analyses of evolutionary relationships include sleep in reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Difference between rem and nrem difference between.
The stage is sometimes referred to as somnolence or drowsy sleep. Just as deep sleep renews the body, rem sleep renews the mind. It was in his book the interpretation of dreams published in 1900 that freud first. Challenging existing claims concerning the functions of rapid eye movement sleep and the purported meaninglessness of dreams, this text offers a. Chapter 07 states of consciousness, psychology, by david g.1394 1077 1241 1549 889 1371 973 271 1121 154 1033 1460 1343 362 1012 498 1518 60 853 2 1576 884 426 124 191 1315 543 804 465 1558 1438 553 508 811 1136 968 1226 883 379 662 922 339 930 1092